Communication is Process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior. Act of inducing others to interpret an idea in the manner intended by the speaker or writer, therefore, to communicate makes business easier simpler.
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Types of Communication:
1. Oral Communication
– Face to face
– Public Address System
Oral communications have the advantage of speed. They allow more interactions between the communications, since responses and counter responses can be immediate. In addition, they create an informal atmosphere, particularly if conducted face to face. Their chief disadvantage is that they have no permanent record.
2. Written Communication
– Letters and notes
– Newsletter and posters
One advantage of written communications is that they leave both the sender and receiver a record of message. Another advantage is that the process of written message encourages clear thinking. Written communication is best for transmitting policies and procedures, which remain in effect for a considerable period of time, and impossible to transmit orally.
3. Non-verbal Communication
– Body language
Non-verbal communications are messages transmitted without words, a fire alarm, a police siren, a traffic light-each has its own message. One important type of non-verbal communications is body language, in which thoughts; feelings and intended actions are “read” by other people. Including in body language are voice tones, facial expressions, eye movements, and hand body movements. Meanings in body language, however, are not always consistent. In body language one gesture may have several meanings, and several gestures may have the same meaning.
4. Mixed Communication
Most oral and written communications include non-verbal cues or comments.
Written messages may be accompanied or followed by oral explanations.
Barriers to communication are any factors that limit or dissert messages. Some always exist. They include, filtering, perception, semantics, jargon, information overload, rumors and value judgments. Sometimes the barriers are physical – for example, bad telephone connections.
Filtering occurs when the sender intentionally sifts or modifies the message so it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. For example, subordinates communicating messages tend to make the information conform to what they feel the managers want to hear. Many employees feel that if they communicate openly, they cause themselves trouble.
To introduce filtering by subordinates, a manager should create an environmental in which subordinates will not expect punishment for disclosing information they need to do their jobs and make sure that the communication process is two – way.
Selective Perception is the tendency to perceive only part of a message even though the entire message was delivered.
People often hear what they want to hear and see what they want to see, ignoring information that conflicts with their beliefs and expectations. One way to reduce selective perception is to develop empathy – an understanding of other people’s view points. Each person as an individual can attempt to consider the position of the other person and adjust personal behavioral accordingly.
3.03 Semitics is the study of meaning in language. Most messages are sent in words, and often are not precise. Many words carry different meanings for different people.
In addition to impreciseness, another somatic barrier is jargon-overly specialized or technical language; communication can be improved by avoiding jargon. Many countries, for example, now require that insurance policies and warranties be written in clear, simple language, so that their purchases can understand them.
Information Overload is another communication barrier. It is an excess amount of incoming, information-too much to be handled. Some managers are literally swamped with information. The first step in reducing information overload is to determine which reports and messages are unnecessary.
Rumors are yet another source of noise or communication barrier. Formal communications are often short-circuited by the grapevine, which is a valuable way of informally getting information to those who need it. Rumors are often unconfirmed messages passed from person to person. Rumors are prevalent when people are confused about what is happening in the organization or when they feel powerless to affect their own future. Passing on a rumor is a mean of reducing anxiety about the subject of the rumor. Since rumor will inevitably crop up, the effective manager should use the grapevine to get accurate information to people.
A casual comment to one or more persons may take care of a problem without the need for more formal action. Also the effective manager is alert to inaccurate rumors and counters their spread by transmitting correct information on the subject.
Value judgments, also a communication barrier, are settlements or beliefs based on or reflecting the individual’s personal or class values. The statements or beliefs based on or reflecting the individual’s personal or class values.
The statements “workers aren’t motivated any more” and “Jim is lazy” are value judgments. They reflect someone’s opinion but are not necessarily factual (even if others agree). Such judgments are frequently treated as fact, however, and people do not search for more accurate information.