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Climate Change And Insecurity Pursuing The Displaced In Bukina Faso

Climate Change And Insecurity Pursuing The Displaced In Burkina Faso

In Burkina Faso, refugees struggle to find a hiding place from all the violence and effects of climate change. Located in West Africa and landlocked, Burkina Faso is one of the poorest countries in the world with a population of nearly 21 million people. The Country covers an area of about 274,200 square kilometres and is bordered by Mali to the northwest, Niger to the northeast, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and the Ivory Coast to the southwest.

The effect of global warming on the this poor nation has visibly affected the lives of many of her citizens.

Case In Point;

Sambo Maiga, 49, for example fondly remembers the wide stretch of land he used to tend in the Burkina Faso village of Taouremba in the Sahel region. His six-hectare farm, with its flocks of sheep and goats. Its crops of millet, sorghum and sesame, had sustained his family for half a century.

That began to change about nine years ago when he could no longer rely on the seasonal rains. While he knows little about the science of climate change, he recalls what happened to his farm: the shea and acacia trees died. The grass where his animals grazed dried up, and the yields from his fields became ever more meagre.

Local Insurgencies;

After an unsuccessful attempt in 2018 to search for better opportunities in neighbouring Côte d’Ivoire, Maiga returned home. Not long afterwards, armed men gunned down members of a local volunteer defense force in Taouremba and Maiga fled with his two wives and 12 children. Since then, the family has moved from town to town in search of safety.

“The land isn’t fertile like it was before.”

“The land isn’t fertile like it was before,” said Maiga, sitting next to a stand where he sells biscuits and cigarettes in the city of Kongoussi, in the Centre-North region.

His wives and children potter around outside the hard, plastic shelter UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, gave the family. This was after unseasonably heavy rains in April swept away their tent and belongings. The temporary homes of around 80 displaced families in the city were destroyed during the floods.

“Thank God no one died,” Maiga said.

But with the family’s flock of sheep and goats reduced from 35 to two by a lack of adequate food, all the children out of school, and no land to cultivate, Maiga is weighed down by worries.

“There is nothing here that I can do to sustain my family,” he said.

Reports from analysts;

While analysts are hesitant to draw direct links between climate change and the ongoing conflict in Burkina Faso, some of the worst violence and displacement has occurred in the poorest, most drought-affected areas. Armed groups have exploited tensions over access to dwindling water sources and shrinking arable land.

The majority of the over one million people displaced within the country have both come from and settled in the drought-hit Sahel. Some in the Centre-North regions, according to government data.

“Competition for scarce natural resources can damage peaceful coexistence and can lead to further instability,”. Notes Shelubale Paul Ali Pauni, UNHCR’s Representative in Burkina Faso.

Changing Rainfall Patterns;

Lassane Sawadogo, a lecturer in geography at the University of Ouagadougou in the capital said that worsening soil quality and changing rainfall patterns were making it more and more difficult for farmers to sow and cultivate crops.

“The rainy season used to start in June; now it really starts at the end of July,” he said.

When the rains finally arrive, they tend to be more intense than in previous years. The heaviest rains in over a decade caused devastating floods across the Sahel in August and September.

In Burkina Faso, where vacant land is becoming increasingly scarce in urban areas, it has forced displaced people to settle in floodplains which were particularly hard hit.

The outline of the tiny shelter Mamouna Ouédraogo and her husband had cobbled together in the city of Kaya, 60 kilometres south-west of Kongoussi, is still visible. It stands amongst a cluster of makeshift shelters strung together with wood and UNHCR tarpaulins.

In September, the flimsy home they had erected on flood-prone farmland collapsed during the heavy rains and the family’s belongings were swept away. They now struggle to pay the 3,500 CFA (US$6.40) monthly rent for a small mud house with a dirt floor.

What The UNHCR Is Trying To Do;

UNHCR is helping displaced families to be better prepared for severe weather by reinforcing existing shelters with sandbags and plastic sheeting. They are also providing emergency shelters like the one Maiga and his family now live in. The agency is also advocating for the relocation of families living in flood-prone areas to safer places.

In addition, there are plans to build more durable shelters that are better suited to the local climate using traditional construction materials, such as mud. Gas is also being distributed to limit the impact on the local environment through the collection of firewood.

Ouédraogo, a mother of seven, was shocked by the heavy rains. As a farmer who grew maize, millet and peanuts in her hometown of Daké in the municipality of Dablo, some 86 kilometers south of Kaya, drought had affected her yield for several consecutive years.

“Five years ago, you could start to feel a change in the climate.” 

“It doesn’t rain much anymore,” she said. “Five years ago, you could start to feel a change in the climate.”

Food Shortage And Insecurity;

Food and water shortages were starting to cause tensions in her community. This was before gunmen on motorcycles barreled through Daké’s main market in July 2019, shooting indiscriminately. Ouédraogo and her family loaded their belongings on a donkey cart and fled to Dablo town, seven kilometers away.

But only a few weeks later, Dablo itself became the target of several deadly attacks. They never spared churches and mosques, and Ouédraogo fled with her family once again.

Like Maiga and his family, violence and hunger pushed them from town to town, before settling in Kaya. Now, Ouédraogo knocks on doors throughout the city offering to wash people’s clothes for small change. Her 18-year-old daughter sells rice by the side of the road. Her husband is trying his luck at an artisanal mining site four hours away by road.

“If I can’t get enough work we suffer,” she said. “The children don’t understand what is happening and why they don’t have enough food.” 

As the security situation deteriorates, people continue to flee from rural areas. These are places where they could grow their own food. They are now increasingly vulnerable to food shortages. Some 3.3 million people out of a population of nearly 20 million are now facing a food crisis.

A Report From The UN.

joint report by the UN’s World Food Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization warned in November that Burkina Faso was one of four “hotspot” countries where a “toxic combination of conflict, economic decline, climate extremes and the COVID-19 pandemic” was driving people towards famine.

Back in Kongoussi, Maiga’s wives often complain about the 13-kilometre journey they have to make on foot to fetch firewood for cooking. It has been two years since they left Taouremba, and the future remains uncertain.

“How can the future be good if you have no work,” Maiga said. “I can see my family suffering, but I can’t do anything for them.” 

Regional Insecurity;

Similar situations are playing out elsewhere in the Sahel. A vast region spanning several West African countries. The UN estimates that close to 80 per cent of farmland is degraded and temperatures are rising 1.5 times. This is faster than the global average. Disputes between pastoralists and farmers over diminishing natural resources have increased over the past decade.

The region is now home to one of the world’s fastest growing displacement crises with over 850,000 people having fled violence across borders. They are often escaping one conflict only to find themselves caught up in another. More than two million people displaced within their own countries, including over one million in Burkina Faso alone.

Source: UN Refugee Agency

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About Eninu William

William is the Chief Editor at Newslex Point. He is a creative writer who enjoys exploring new ideas in the journalism space. A good story, he believes, comes with a great deal of research. Coffee and books are his good friends.

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